Clean diesel is not as clean as we thought. It is still cleaner than it was, and those are nice engines, smooth, quick to respond to the throttle. Industrial diesel is not so quick, and not so clean. Get the temperature up and you get more nitrogen oxide. Too much has a different smell, it is choking.
Next, does clean matter? We humans add a bit to the green house gasses, and a bit to the partials. The effect of green house gasses counteracts the particles. Particles cool, that is block sunlight, and gasses keep the heat in. Either one, without the other would be a quick change in climate. In the geological record, on average for the last 200,000 years, we have had a cold climate changing event about ever 20,000 years. We are about due again. The events typically have been volcanic eruptions or meteor strikes. OH well, it is just nature doing here thing, the sum of the randoms. The earth will survive, but humans, I am not so sure. We are so dependent on infrastructure. That makes humans vulnerable. Oh well.
So the German capitalist cheat the US requirements. And Canada, Europe, German requirements. Fraudulent capitalists. Act surprised. I worked much of my life in and around the testing industry, and have seen my share of fraud, deceit, and the like. The statement "we only have problems when our concrete is tested" comes to mind.
Now the question becomes, will all this fraud kill VW. I doubt it. Fraud is a way of life in the auto industry, credit card industry, manufacturing, construction, government, finical industry, etc. It is illegal, immoral, unethical, unvirtuous, etc. What are we going to do about it? Or more to to the point, what can we do about it? When caught, call out the perpetrators. When it slips by, who is going to spend the effort and resources to investigate, demonstrate, and attempt to prosecute. It is easier and often more satisfying to try them in the press.
Enough. What do I know.